The series will air in the 8 p.m. hour on Mondays. The time slot's previous occupant, "Chuck," will have completed its season.
Based on the award-winning British documentary series, "Who Do You Think You Are?" unearths the family trees of a variety of celebrities, tracing their ancestral histories along with the history of the United States.
In addition to Kudrow, other participating celebrities include Susan Sarandon and Sarah Jessica Parker.
"This show personalizes history and turns it into a gripping narrative," says Kudrow in a network statement. "The most striking thing about the show is the realization of how connected we all are."
Adds NBC Executive Vice President for Alternative Programming Paul Telegdy, "No other program gives this unique glimpse into the personal lives of celebrities or takes viewers on a quantum leap through history in such an entertaining way. We are thrilled to have Lisa, Susan and Sarah Jessica kick off this groundbreaking series."
NBC promises that additional celebrity names will be announced soon.
In addition to Kudrow, "Who Do You Think You Are?" will be executive produced by Dan Bucatinsky and Don Roos of Is or Isn't Entertainment, plus Alex Graham and Lucy Carter of Wall to Wall.
Kudrow was nominated for six Emmys for her time on NBC's "Friends," winning in 1998. She subsequently executive produced and starred in HBO's "The Comeback."